The Toronto Transit Commission, or TTC, is responsible for providing public transit in the City of Toronto.
Toronto is 622 square kilometres in size, located in the centre of the Greater Toronto Area, and has a population of 2.8 million people.
The TTC serves this area with a grid network of:
four subway lines;
11 streetcar routes; and
more than 140 bus routes.
The TTC also operates 13 bus routes into neighbouring municipalities adjacent to the City of Toronto. Neighbouring transit agencies operate more than 30 bus routes which connect directly with the TTC subway system or other surface routes.
There are also transfer opportunities between several TTC services and the GO Transit commuter rail services.
The TTC carries approximately 525 million customers per year, or about 1.6 million passengers on a typical weekday. Our ridership accounts for more than 75% of all transit ridership in the Greater Toronto Area.
The TTC uses a very simple and extremely successful fare system with a flat-fare structure, allowing customers to travel an unlimited distance per trip for one price.
The TTC’s fleet consists of:
about 700 subway cars;
249 streetcars, of which 52 are higher-capacity articulated streetcars and 2 are the new Flexity streetcars; and
1,800 buses of varying ages and types
The TTC operates a north-south, east-west grid of routes conforming, to the greatest extent possible, with the grid of major arterial roads in the City. All these routes feed a grid of rapid transit routes.
Many TTC bus and streetcar routes operate all day, every day. The density of this grid is largely unchanged for 18 operating hours per day, thus providing transit services within a 5 to 7 minute walk of most areas within Toronto.
One of the TTC’s most important features is efficient, convenient, and free transfers between all services and modes: this is critical for a grid-based system that feeds riders from surface vehicles to subways for high-speed trips into the downtown core and throughout the network.
The TTC’s conventional or fixed-route services are planned so that the capacity, or supply, is matched to actual observed passenger demand, as recorded through frequent passenger counts, in accordance with vehicle crowding standards, which are, for example:
51 passengers per bus during peak periods; and
74 passengers per streetcar during peak periods.
This results in the majority of TTC services operating at peak intervals of 5-10 minutes, with some service as frequent as every 2 minutes, and off-peak service every 5 to 20 minutes.
TTC subways operate every 2 minutes 21 seconds during peak periods; at other times, they run every 5 minutes or better.
The TTC is governed by an eleven-member Board of Commissioners, composed of seven elected City Councillors and four citizen appointees. The Board of Commissioners must ensure that service and fare levels are set so that passenger demand is met and budgets are balanced.
The TTC also operates a fully-accessible door-to-door specialized system, called Wheel-Trans, for people with significant mobility difficulties.
Wheel-Trans consists of:
201 fully-accessible buses; and
contracted accessible and regular taxis.
Wheel-Trans carries 2.8 million trips per year, or about 7,800 trips on a typical weekday.
Wheel-Trans customers wishing to make trips on this door-to-door specialized service are required to book their trips one day in advance, or they can reserve regular daily trips on a subscription basis.